Instructions For Authors

GENERAL GUIDELINES

All manuscripts 
  The Medical Journal of Chosun University (Med. J. Chosun Univ.: MJCU) is the official publication of the Institute of Medical Science, Chosun University. MJCU aims to contribute to the advancement and dissemination of scientific knowledge concerning basic and clinical medical research. MJCU welcomes papers on broad range of topics of general interests to scientists and clinicians. MJCU also welcomes papers on the science of nursing. MJCU publishes four issues per year (March, June, Sep-tember and December) in English and Korean.

Categories of publications 
1. Invited review articles provide brief summaries of developments in fast moving areas. They must be based on published arti-cles, and may address any subject with the scope of MJCU. They are invited by the editors, and are accepted after editorial evalu-ation. Review articles are generally prepared in the same format as original articles, but the details of manuscript format may be flexible according to the contents.
2. Original articles are papers reporting the results of basic and clinical investigations that are sufficiently well documented to be acceptable to critical readers. 1) Regular papers should be complete in themselves and supported by experimental details, and be prepared in accordance with the usual format of MJCU described in the section of manuscript preparation. The manuscript should be in the following sequence: title page, abstract and key words, introduction, materials (or subject) and methods, results, discus-sion, acknowledgements, references, tables, figures legends and figures. 2) Brief communications or notes are short original articles that are narrower in scope than those described in Regular articles and that represent new important developments. The manuscript should be in the following sequence: title page, abstract and key words, introduction, materials (or subject) and meth-ods, results and discussion, acknowledgements, references, tables, figures legends and figures.
3. Case reports deal with clinical cases of medical interest or innovation. They should illustrate a rare occurrence of clinical importance, and so should address issues of importance to medical researchers and should have sufficient helpful illustrations. The manuscript should be in the following sequence: title page, abstract and key words, introduction, case report, discussion, acknowledgements, references, figures legends and figures.
4. Errata and author’s correction include correcting errors that occurred during typing, editing, or printing (like as a mis-spelling, a dropped word), and correcting errors of a scientific nature or omission that do not affect the original results of a pub-lished article.

Manuscript submission 
All manuscripts should be submitted to the journal web site at http://medres.chosun.ac.kr/ or by E-mail (medres@ chosun.ac. kr). Authors should note that the only acceptable type of files for submission is ‘Microsoft word’. It is recommended that all ta-bles and figures should be assembled into a single file together with the main text when submitted. All queries regarding the submission should be directed to the Editorial Office.

Editorial office 
The Institute of Medical Science, Chosun University
309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-Gu,
Gwangju 501-759, Republic of Korea
Tel: +82-62-230-6041
Fax: +82-62-232-5865
E-mail: medres@chosun.ac.kr



EDITORIAL AND REVIEW POLICY

  All manuscripts submitted are assigned to one of the editors. Each editor entrusts three qualified reviewers with the review of manuscripts. For reviews, names and their affiliations of the authors are blinded. When a manuscript is submitted to MJCU, it is given a manuscript number, which should be referred to in any subsequent communications between the corresponding author and the editor or the Editorial Office.
The reviewers should operate under the Guidelines for Reviewers and be complete their reviews as soon as possible (average 2-3 weeks). A reviewer may recommend "acceptance without revision", "acceptance after minor revision", "review again after revision", and "rejection". However, the editor makes a final decision as to whether or not they are acceptable for publica-
Instruction for authors
tion based on scientific merits. Moreover, the editor has the authority to ask for revisions or additional corrections for format, quality, originality, clarity, etc. if necessary, based on the critiques and recommended decision of the reviewers. If there is a marked discrepancy in the decisions between referees or in opinions between the author and referee(s), the editor may send the manuscript to another referee for additional comments and a recommended decision. Three repeated decisions of "review again after revision" are regarded as "rejection".
The reviewed manuscripts are returned back to the corresponding author with comments and recommended revisions. Names and decisions of the referees are masked. A final decision on acceptance or rejection for publication is forwarded to the corre-sponding author from the Editorial Office. The peer review process takes usually four to eight weeks after the assignment of manuscript to an editor.
Revisions are usually requested to take account of criticisms and comments made by reviewers. Failure to submit the revised manuscript within one month is regarded as a withdrawal. The corresponding author must indicate clearly what alterations have been made in response to the reviewers’ comments point by point. Once accepted, original articles will be published within six months.
Manuscripts that have been rejected or withdrawn may be resubmitted if the major criticisms have been properly addressed. As with the initial submission, resubmitted manuscripts should be accompanied by a cover letter stating that the manuscript is a re-submission and describing in detail what changes have been made. The same editor that handled the original submission will normally handle the resubmitted manuscript.
The usual reasons for rejection are topics that are too specific and target an audience that is too limited, insufficient originality, serious scientific flaws, poor quality of illustrations, absence of a message that might be important to readers, or lack of format conformity to this Instructions. Rarity of a disease condition is itself not an acceptable justification for a case report.
The journal orderly publishes review articles, original articles and case reports, and the publication order is determined by the accepted order of manuscripts.



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ETHICS

  MJCU adheres to the ethical guidelines for research and publication described in Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_eth-ics.html) and Guidelines on Good Publication Practice (http:// publicationethics.org/static/1999/1999pdf 13.pdf). The editorial board reserves the right to reject papers if ethical aspects are in doubt. In particular, the personal details of patients including names, chart numbers, and so on, should be avoided in cases of case reports.

Registration of clinical trial research
 
Clinical trial is defined as “any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome.” Any research that deals with a clinical trial should be registered with a primary national clinical trial registration site such as http://ncrc.cdc.go.kr/cris, or other sites accredited by WHO or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The clinical trial registration number shall be published at the end of the abstract.

Conflict-of-interest statement 
The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors’ interpre-tation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical compa-nies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.

Statement of informed consent 
Copies of written informed consent and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for clinical research should be kept. If nec-essary, the editor or reviewers may request copies of these documents to resolve questions about IRB approval and study conduct.

Statement of human and animal rights 
All investigations involving human participants must be conducted according to the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki (3). The author must state that the use of animals (defined as all mammals and birds) in the study was approved by the institution’s Animal Ethics Committee in accordance with Article 14 of the Korean Animal Protection Law or its equivalent. It must be clearly stated that use of animals in the study complied with Article 13 of the Korean Animal Protection Law (the princi-
Instruction for authors
ples for animal use) and relevant institutional policies. Also studies with pathogens requiring a high degree of biosafety should pass review of a relevant committee. Copies of the protocol written in English and approved by the institution’s Animal Ethics Committee or its equivalent must be available for review by the editor upon request.

Authorship 
Authorship credit should be based on (a) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (b) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (c) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet these 3 conditions.
When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsi-bility for the manuscript. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgements. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.

Originality, duplicate publication and plagiarism 
Only manuscripts that report novel and significant scientific findings in medical and nursing science will be considered and ac-cepted for publication. A manuscript will be accepted on the conditions that the present work was not published previously, and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
Duplicate (or redundant) publication is defined as “reporting (publishing or attempting to publish) substantially the same work more than once, without attribution of the original source(s).” Characteristics of reports that are substantially similar include the following: (a) at least one of the authors must be common to all reports (if there are no common authors, it is more likely plagia-rism than duplicate publication), (b) the subject or study populations are often the same or similar, (c) the methodology is typical-ly identical or nearly so, (d) the results and their interpretation generally vary little, if at all.
When submitting a manuscript, authors should include a letter informing the editor of any potential overlap with other already published material or material being evaluated for publication and should also state how the manuscript submitted to MJCU dif-fers substantially from this other material. If all or part of your patient population was previously reported, this should be men-tioned in the Materials and Methods, with citation of the appropriate reference(s).
All submitted manuscripts should be original and should not be considered by other scientific journals for publication at the same time. Any part of the accepted manuscript should not be duplicated in any other scientific journal without the permission of the Editorial Board. If duplicate publication related to the papers of this journal is detected, the authors will be announced in the journal and their institutes will be informed, and there will also be penalties for the authors.

Secondary publication 
It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the conditions of secondary publication of the Uniform Re-quirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, 2008 (http://www. icmje.org).



MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION

  All manuscripts must be prepared according to “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals, 2008” (http://www. icmje.org).” Authors who are not confident of their English writing should have their manuscripts checked by an English proof-reader. All manuscripts must be written using the word processor Microsoft Word (DOC), with all tables and figures inserted in the same document. The manuscript must be typed in double space on A4 sized, with margins of at least 2.5 cm on every side. The font (Times New Roman for English, Batang for Korean) size should not be larger than 12. The main body of regular papers should be in the following sequence: title, abstract and key words, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, references, tables, and figure legends. All pages should be numbered consecutively starting from the title page.
Original regular papers should not exceed the following limits: word count from abstract to conclusion (excluding references and figure legends), 5,000 words; number of references, 50; number of tables and figures, 10. Brief communications or case re-ports should not exceed the maximums; word counts from abstract to conclusion should not exceed 2,500 words, number of ref-erences, 30; number of figures and tables, 5. Any article longer than these limits will send back to the author for shortening the text of the article.
Instruction for authors

1. Cover letter:
 The manuscript should be accompanied by a cover letter including title of the manuscript, name of the corre-sponding author, complete names of institutes, addresses, telephone and facsimile numbers, and e-mail addresses of the corre-sponding authors and a short summary.

2. Title page: This should contain the title of an article, full names of authors, and institutional affiliation(s). If several authors and institutions are listed, they should be clearly indicated with which department and institution each author is affiliated. Place an asterisk after the name of the corresponding author. In a separate paragraph, address for correspondence, including the name of corresponding author, degree, address (institutional affiliation, city, zip code and country), telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address, should be given. Information concerning “Conflict-of-interest” should be placed as a footnote. Numbered series titles are not allowed and avoid the main title/subtitle arrangement, complete sentences, and unnecessary articles. A running title, which is less than ten words and not declarative or interrogative sentences, should also be given.

3. Abstract and key words: The abstract should be concise, less than 200 words, and describe concisely, in a paragraph the pur-pose, methods, important results, and derived conclusions of the study in an unstructured format. Abbreviations, if needed, should be kept to absolute minimum with proper identifications. Experimental details and references should not be presented in the abstract. Up to five key words should be listed at the bottom of abstract to be used as index terms. For the selection of key words, refer to Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) in Index Medicus, or in internet site, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/ mesh/ MBrowser.html. Abstracts for brief communications or case reports should be less than 100 words in the same format.

4. Introduction: The introduction should supply brief but sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results of the present study without referring to previous publications on the topic. The introduction should also provide the rationale for the present study. The specific questions to be addressed by the study should be described. Use only those references required to provide the most salient background rather than an extensive review of the topic.

5. Materials (or subjects) and methods: Explanation of the experimental methods should be concise and sufficient for repeti-tion by other qualified investigators. Procedures that have been published previously should not be described in detail. However, new or significant modifications of previously published procedures need full descriptions. The sources of special chemicals or preparations should be given along with their location (name of company, city and state, and country). Method of statistical anal-yses and criteria of significance level should be described. When a large number of microbial strains, mutans, bacteriophages, or plasmids are used, include tables identifying their sources and properties. Clinical studies or experiments using laboratory ani-mals or pathogens should mention approval of the studies by relevant committees in this section. In case reports, case description replaces the Materials and Methods section as well as the Results section.

6. Results: The result section should include results of the experiments. Extensive interpretation of the results should be reserved for the Discussion section. Present experimental results and short conclusions that come directly from acceptable rationales. Pre-sent the results as clearly and concisely as possible in one of the following: text, table(s), or figure(s). Avoid extensive use of graphs to present data that might be more concisely presented in the text or table(s). Limit photographs, particularly photomicro-graphs and electron micrographs, to those that are absolutely necessary to show the experimental findings. Number figures and tables in order and be sure to cite all figures and tables in the text.

7. Discussion: The discussion section should provide a reasonable interpretation of the results in relation to previously published works. Avoid extensive repetition of the Result section or reiteration of the Introduction. Speculation is permitted, but it must be directly supported by the presented data of authors and be well founded. It should not contain extensive repetition of the results section or reiteration of the introduction. In brief communications, the Results and Discussion sections may be combined.

8. Acknowledgments: All persons who have made substantial contribution, but who are not eligible as authors should be named in acknowledgement. Acknowledgements of financial supports should be included as briefly as possible.

9. References: Citation of references in the text should be made by giving consecutive number in parenthesis (Vancouver style or NLM style). They should be listed in the order of citation in the text with consecutive number in this separate section. When it is necessary to mention the authors’ name in the text, put the authors’ last name together with reference number at parenthesis. For examples, two author: Kim and Lee (1), and more than three authors: Kim et al (3). Style for papers in periodicals is: name and 
Instruction for authors
initials of all authors, full title of article, journal name abbreviated in accordance with Index Medicus, year, volume, and first and last page numbers. Style for chapter of a book is: author and title of the chapter, editor of the book, title of the book, edition, vol-ume, place, publisher, year, and first and last page numbers. Provide all authors’ names when there are fewer than 10; for 10 or more list the first 10 and “et al.” All other references should be listed as shown in "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts sub-mitted to Biomedical Journals, 2008". Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and correct text citations. Papers in press may be listed among the references with the journal name and tentative year of publication. Un-published data or personal communications can be listed only with the author’s written permission. Examples of reference style are

1. Hus DW, Hakim F, Biller BMK, de la Monte S, Zervas NT, Klibranski A, Hedley-Whyte ET. Significance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen index in predicting pituitary adenoma recurrence. J Neurosurg 1993; 78: 753-61.
2. Dhole A, Ortega I, Berauer C. Effect of oxygen on in vitro growth of Mycobacterium leprae. Abstract U-82, p168, The 89th Annual Meeting of America Society for Microbiology. 
3. Lennette EH. Diagnostic procedures for viral and rickettsial disease. 3 rd ed. Washington D.C.: Am Publi Health Assoc, 1964.
4. Kozak CA, Rowe WP. Chromosomal mapping of ectotropic and xenotropic leukemia virus inducing loci in the mouse. In: Fields B, Jaemisch R. Virology. 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press, 1980, p171-80.
5. WHO. WHO statistical information system. Available at http://www.who.int/whosis/en.menu.cfm, accessed on 1 April, 2009.


10. Tables:
 Tables should be constructed simply and should not duplicate information found in the figures. Each table should have a title, begin on a new page, and be numbered with an Arabic numeral in the order of its citation in the text. If numerical measurements are given, the unit of measurement should be included in the column heading. The statistical significance of ob-served differences in the data should be indicated by the appropriate statistical analysis. All nonstandard abbreviations should be defined in footnotes. Lower case letters in superscripts a), b), c)... should be used for special remarks.

11. Figures:
 Only PPT files containing high-resolution figures should be submitted. The smallest parts of a figure should be legi-ble when they are reduced to the final print size. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photographs should contrast from the back-ground visually. The legend for each light microscopic image should indicate the stain used and the level of magnification. Elec-tron micrographs should have an internal magnification scale marker. All types of figures may be reduced, enlarged, or trimmed for publication by the editor. When line drawing is necessary in figures, use standard symbols (○, ●, □, ■, △, ▲, ---) in prefer-ence. Tag each figure with its own order number (Figure 1, Figure 2, ---). All the legends for figures should be typewritten in double space. Do not use separate sheets for each legend. Figure legend should describe briefly the data shown, explain any ab-breviations or reference point in the photographs, and identify all units, mathematical expressions, abscissas, ordinates, and sym-bols.

12. Medical terms, abbreviations and units: Medical terminology should be written based on the most recent edition of Eng-lish-Korean Korean-English Medical Terminology (http:// www.kamje. or.kr/term), published by the Korean Medical Association or the most recent edition of Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary (http://www. dorlands. com). All abbreviations used in the text repeatedly should be fully described when used at first, and introduced in parenthesis. Abbreviations are not allowed in the title. It is possible to use international or standard symbols or units without any additional descriptions (example: μL, mL, μg, U, h, min, sec, oC, Ci, cpm, etc). Isotope-labelled chemicals or compounds should be typed in the chemical formula (e.g., 14CO2, [14C]-urea, [methyl-14C]-methionine).

13. Names of drugs, devices, and other products: Generic names should be used. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the brand name and the name of the manufacturer in parentheses after the first mention of the generic name in the Method section.

14. Species names, Gene names, symbols, accession numbers, etc: The names of species, genotypes, restriction enzymes, etc. should be type in italics. Authors describing genes or related structures in a manuscript should include the names and official symbols provided by the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Commit-tee.
Instruction for authors



SUBMISSION OF REVISED MANUSCRIPTS

  The corresponding author is responsible for the revision and correction of the manuscript to minimize any typographical or grammatical errors before submission. When you prepare a revised version of your manuscript, please submit both a clean copy of your manuscript and an annotated copy describing the changes you have made. Failure to do so will cause a delay in the re-view of your revision. If references, tables, or figures are moved, added, or deleted during the revision process, renumber them to reflect such changes so that all tables, references and figures are cited in numeric order.
The annotated copy should have changes highlighted (either using the Track Changes function in MS word or by high-lighting or underlining the text) with notes in the text referring to the editor or reviewer query. 



GALLEY PROOFS AND REPRINTS

  MJCU provides the corresponding author with galley proofs for their correction. Corresponding authors will receive electronic page proofs to check the copyedited and typeset article before publication. Portable document format (PDF) files of the type-set pages and support documents (e.g., reprint order form) will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail. The proofs should be corrected, signed by the corresponding author and mailed back to the editorial office within 48 hours. However, extensive correc-tions, additions, deletions should not be made during the proof stage. Changes are limited to correction of spelling errors, incor-rect data, grammatical errors and updated information regarding references. Any fault found after the publication is the responsi-bility of the authors. We urge our contributors to proofread their accepted manuscripts very carefully. If the proof is not returned or faxed to the Editorial Office within 48 hours, it may be necessary to re-scheduled the paper for a subsequent issue. Fifty copies of reprint are provided free of charge and sent to the corresponding author. Extra copies (in multiples of 50) can be ordered and purchased.

# This instruction was prepared by referring to the latest version of the instructions for authors of the Journal of Korea Medical Science, the Journal of Bacteriology and Virology, and the Journal of Microbiology.